September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 37

causation of an adverse employment
action, the federal district
court would consider " the work
environment created by the cumulative
effect of several actions'':
[T]he causation
inquiry asks
whether this work environment
was caused by Plaintiff's June
2013 gender discrimination complaint,
not whether any discrete act
carried out after March 31, 2016,
was caused by the complaint....
A causal connection between an
employer's actions and a protected
activity can be established if the
adverse action was taken shortly
after the plaintiff's exercise of protected
rights....
Where an adverse employment
action occurs very close in time after
an employer learns of a protected
activity such temporal proximity between
the events is significant enough
to constitute evidence of a causal connection
for purposes of satisfying a
prima facie case of retaliation.
Under the circumstances of this
particular case, the court concluded
a reasonable jury could find
Plaintiff was subjected to an adverse
work environment after her
June 2013 discrimination claim until
January 2017, when Plaintiff's
longtime assistant was transferred
without notice or explanation:
The allegedly hostile work environment
here began shortly after
Plaintiff filed her gender discrimination
complaint, with Lynch
threatening Plaintiff's job, challenging
Plaintiff's loyalty in front
of her peers, excluding Plaintiff
from his open-door policy, and refusing
to meet with Plaintiff alone.
As noted by the court, " these
actions occurred within days or
weeks after Lynch learned of the
discrimination complaint. "
Conclusion
Having found sufficient evidence in
the pretrial record to support Plaintiff's
retaliation claim, the federal district
court rejected Defendant's motion
for summary judgment, which
would allow Plaintiff's
retaliation
claim to proceed to trial for consideration
by a jury.
James C. Kozlowski, J.D., Ph.D., is an Attorney and Professor
emeritus in the School of Sport, Recreation and Tourism
Management at George Mason University (jkozlows@gmu.
edu). Webpage link to an archive of articles (1982 to present):
mason.gmu.edu/~jkozlows/lawarts/artlist.htm.
Thank You to the Sponsors of the
2022 NRPA Annual Conference
®
™
PARK S ANDRECRE AT ION . OR G | SEP T EMBER 2 0 22 | Parks & Recreation
37
https://mason.gmu.edu/~jkozlows/lawarts/artlist.htm

September 2022 - Parks & Recreation

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of September 2022 - Parks & Recreation

September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - Intro
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - Cover1
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - Cover2
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 1
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 2
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 3
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 4
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 5
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 6
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 7
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 8
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 9
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 10
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 10a
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 10b
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 11
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 12
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 13
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 14
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 15
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 16
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 17
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 18
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 19
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 20
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 21
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 22
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 23
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 24
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 25
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 26
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 27
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 28
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 29
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 30
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 31
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 32
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 33
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 34
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 35
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 36
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 37
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 38
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 39
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 40
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 41
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 42
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 43
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 44
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 45
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 46
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 47
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 48
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 49
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 50
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 51
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 52
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 53
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 54
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 55
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 56
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 57
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 58
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 59
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 60
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 61
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 62
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 63
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 64
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - Cover3
September 2022 - Parks & Recreation - Cover4
https://ezine.nrpa.org/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/september-2022
https://ezine.nrpa.org/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/august-2022
https://ezine.nrpa.org/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/july-2022
https://ezine.nrpa.org/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/june-2022
https://ezine.nrpa.org/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/may-2022
https://ezine.nrpa.org/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/april-2022
https://ezine.nrpa.org/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/march-2022
https://ezine.nrpa.org/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/february-2022
https://ezine.nrpa.org/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/january-2022
https://ezine.nrpa.org/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/december-2021
https://ezine.nrpa.org/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/november-2021
https://ezine.nrpa.org/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/october-2021
https://ezine.nrpa.org/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/september-2021
https://ezine.nrpa.org/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/august-2021
https://ezine.nrpa.org/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/july-2021
https://ezine.nrpa.org/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/june-2021
https://ezine.nrpa.org/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/may-2021
https://ezine.nrpa.org/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/april-2021
https://ezine.nrpa.org/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/march-2021
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