January 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 19

payment to be an exception option
exercised at the discretion of the city
(Figure 1, stage 4). This reflects the
reality that a large majority of dedications
are in the form of fees rather
than land. There are three reasons for
this. First, many ordinances specify
they will not accept land dedications
of, say, less than five acres. Thus, if
the level of service for the land dedication
is 100 dwelling units per acre,
then only projects of at least 500
units will have this option. Second,
if cities are " landlocked, " then new
growth is primarily going to be infill
development, often characterized by
higher structures rather than a bigger
footprint, so no land is available.
Third, cities that have made substantial
front-end investment in parks
that is intended to meet future needs
may require subsequent dedications
be in cash to reimburse the costs of
those investments.
Dedication for Parks
Beyond the Neighborhood
This
expansion
of
alization that providing only land
requires existing taxpayers to pay
the costs of transforming bare land
into a functioning park. Thus, the
intent to require new growth to pay
the cost of the demands it places on
parks is not fulfilled. If a park development
fee is not required and
the community fails to approve a
bond issue to transform raw land
into a functioning park, then the
result may be desolate open spaces
devoid of park-like qualities that are
a blight and public nuisance rather
than a benefit and positive asset.
Creating Greater Awareness
Although the courts have embraced
stages 5 and 6 of Figure 1, relatively
few cities have adapted to this trend.
Consequently, the unrealized potential
of parkland dedication ordinances
is arguably the lowest hanging
fruit of capital funding sources
for parks. Part of the reason for this
is that the implementation of the
ordinances is the purview of planning
departments, not park and recreation
departments, since they are
a component of a city's subdivision
regulations. Their unrealized potential
suggests that park directors
should perhaps take a more proactive
role in making city managers
and elected officials aware of their
full potential.
John L. Crompton, Ph.D., is a University Distinguished
Professor, Regents Professor and Presidential Professor for
Teaching Excellence in the Department of Recreation, Park
and Tourism Sciences at Texas A&M University and an
elected Councilmember for the City of College Station
(jcrompton@tamu.edu).
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dedication
requirements (Figure 1, stage 5)
recognizes that new residents
do not confine their use only to
neighborhood parks. The initial focus
on neighborhood parks was based on
the premise that residents walked
or biked to the nearest park. In
contemporary society, data frequently
show most users are likely to drive to
the park that best meets their needs
for a desired experience. Selecting a
park to visit is usually based on which
amenities are desired, rather than
which park is closest.
Commercial Grade
The Emergence of Park
Development Fees
The emergence of park improvement
fees in the new millennium
(Figure 1, stage 6) reflected a reAll
Day Power
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January 2022 - Parks & Recreation

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of January 2022 - Parks & Recreation

January 2022 - Parks & Recreation - Intro
January 2022 - Parks & Recreation - Cover1
January 2022 - Parks & Recreation - Cover2
January 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 1
January 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 2
January 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 3
January 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 4
January 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 5
January 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 6
January 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 7
January 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 8
January 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 9
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January 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 11
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January 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 13
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January 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 18
January 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 19
January 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 20
January 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 21
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January 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 49
January 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 50
January 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 51
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January 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 53
January 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 54
January 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 55
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January 2022 - Parks & Recreation - Cover3
January 2022 - Parks & Recreation - Cover4
https://ezine.nrpa.org/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/february-2022
https://ezine.nrpa.org/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/january-2022
https://ezine.nrpa.org/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/december-2021
https://ezine.nrpa.org/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/november-2021
https://ezine.nrpa.org/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/october-2021
https://ezine.nrpa.org/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/september-2021
https://ezine.nrpa.org/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/august-2021
https://ezine.nrpa.org/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/july-2021
https://ezine.nrpa.org/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/june-2021
https://ezine.nrpa.org/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/may-2021
https://ezine.nrpa.org/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/april-2021
https://ezine.nrpa.org/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/march-2021
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