April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 31

district court, " Perry's enforcement
of a private rule was pursuant to
the direct request of TOTMA, acting
through Lindsay Dodson " :
This is a case where a parade participant
was directed by the parade
organizer to remove a flag from a
float. Assuming still that Perry acted
as a police officer and state actor
when he directed Plaintiffs to remove
their flag or their float, his conduct
was no different than the conduct of
a police officer being called to remove
a trespasser... . [A] private party's
mere invocation of state legal procedures
does not constitute state action.
Permit Did Not
Regulate Speech
While " TOTMA had a permit from
the City for a reverse parade, " the
federal district court also found the
parade permit did not compel " TOTMA's
decision about what speech
its
parade
participants
expressed
during that parade. " Moreover, the
federal district court found TOTMA's
decision to remove Plaintiffs'
flag or float from TOTMA's parade
was not " compelled by or fairly attributable
to the City. " As a result,
the court held Plaintiffs had failed
to demonstrate the City had violated
42 U.S.C. ยง 1983 because the
alleged deprivation of their Confederate
flag message had not " resulted
from the exercise of a right or privilege
having its source in state authority. "
The federal district court, therefore,
granted the City's motion for
summary judgment and dismissed
Plaintiffs lawsuit.
See also: " Free Speech
and Public/Private Events, "
James C. Kozlowski. Parks &
Recreation. Apr. 2006. Vol. 41, Iss.
4.
mason.gmu.edu/~jkozlows/
lawarts/04APR06.pdf and " Gay
Pride Message Not Accommodated
In City Parade Organized By
Private Association, " James C.
Kozlowski. Parks & Recreation. Sep.
1995. Vol. 30, Iss. 9; p. 28
mason.gmu.edu/~jkozlows/
lawarts/09SEP95.pdf.
James C. Kozlowski, J.D., Ph.D., is an Attorney and
Associate Professor in the School of Sport, Recreation and
Tourism Management at George Mason University
(jkozlows@gmu.edu). Law review articles archive (1982 to
present): mason.gmu.edu/~jkozlows.
Hyatt Lodge | Oak Brook, Illinois
August 14-18, 2022
PREPARING PARK AND RECREATION LEADERS
FOR THE CHALLENGES
OF TOMORROW
Apply Today at nrpa.org/Directors
PARK S ANDRECRE AT ION . OR G | APRIL 2 0 22 | Parks & Recreation
31
http://cehdclass.gmu.edu/jkozlows/lawarts/04APR06.pdf http://cehdclass.gmu.edu/jkozlows/lawarts/04APR06.pdf http://cehdclass.gmu.edu/jkozlows/lawarts/04APR06.pdf http://cehdclass.gmu.edu/jkozlows/lawarts/04APR06.pdf http://cehdclass.gmu.edu/jkozlows/lawarts/04APR06.pdf http://mason.gmu.edu/~jkozlows/ http://cehdclass.gmu.edu/jkozlows/lawarts/09SEP95.pdf http://cehdclass.gmu.edu/jkozlows/lawarts/09SEP95.pdf http://cehdclass.gmu.edu/jkozlows/lawarts/09SEP95.pdf http://mason.gmu.edu/~jkozlows/ http://mason.gmu.edu/~jkozlows http://www.nrpa.org/Directors

April 2022 - Parks & Recreation

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of April 2022 - Parks & Recreation

April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - Intro
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - Cover1
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - Cover2
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 1
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 2
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 3
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 4
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 5
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 6
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 7
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 8
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 9
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 10
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 11
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 12
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 13
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 14
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 15
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 16
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 17
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 18
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 19
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 20
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 21
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 22
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 23
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 24
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 25
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 26
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 27
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 28
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 29
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 30
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 31
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 32
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 33
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 34
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 35
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 36
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 37
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 38
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 39
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 40
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 41
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 42
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 43
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 44
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 45
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 46
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 47
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 48
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 49
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 50
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 51
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 52
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 53
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 54
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 55
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - 56
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - Cover3
April 2022 - Parks & Recreation - Cover4
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